How to Read a P&ID? (Piping & Instrumentation Diagram) | Thủ thuật hay nhất về Autocad

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In this video, we will learn how to read a P&ID which is something that engineers encounter on a daily basis.

P&IDs are schematic representations of pipelines, equipment, instrumentation, and control systems found in process environments such as Oil Refineries, Chemical Plants, Paper Mills, and Cement Plants, etc.

The symbols contained in P&IDs represent the equipment in the process such as actuators, sensors, and controllers.

Process equipment such as valves, instruments, and pipelines are identified by codes and symbols.

As well as devices and pipelines, a P&ID will commonly contain information on vents, drains, and sampling lines as well as flow directions, control IO and Interconnection References.

The Instrumentation codes listed in P&IDs follow a standard format, after some practice in reading P&IDs you will know these codes by heart, but in the meantime, there are many resources on the web where you can download these tables for reference.

The first letter of the code identifies the parameters that are being controlled or monitored for example Flow, Temperature, Level or Pressure.

The next letter is used to define the type of control device being used, for example, Transmitter, Valve or Controller.

The number refers to the logical numerator.
For example, we may have a system with 4 temperature transmitters, it makes sense to identify these as TT01, TT02, TT03, and TT04.

Let’s consider for a moment an instrument on a P&ID named FV01. Looking up the code for this we could tell this is a Flow Valve numbered 01.

Symbols, circles, and lines are used to represent instruments and to show how they are connected to the rest of the system.
Now that we know our device FV01 is represented by a circle, we can also tell from the P&ID where the instrument or device is located.

The presence or absence of a line in the circle determines the location of the physical device. Let’s take a look at how these are commonly represented.

– NO LINE: The instrument is located in the field near the process & operator
– SOLID LINE: The instrument is located in a control room (accessible to the operator)
– DOTTED LINE: The instrument is not directly accessible

The piping or connection lines on the P&ID also tell us about the instrument, for example, a solid line would indicate the interconnection is via pipework whereas a dotted line would indicate an electrical connection.

It is worth familiarising yourself with the different types of connection symbols as this can give you an insight into the function of an instrument even before you know its code.


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How to Read a P&ID? (Piping & Instrumentation Diagram)
How to Read a P&ID? (Piping & Instrumentation Diagram)

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How to Read a P&ID? (Piping & Instrumentation Diagram).


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  1. Every automation engineer, technician, maintenance engineer should watch and Like the videos.. realpars team taking lots of effort to make automation article… Thanks you team… Viewer are in more than likes.

  2. 1 Identify in the P&ID the instruments that you consider for the measurement and control of the process. Explain.


    2 Process variables being measured and / or controlled


    3 Identify the process lines?

    4 FO and FC what they mean for a control valve


    5 Explain what the process consists of?

  3. thanks for the video. it helps ,me a lot but what do you mean at 3:37 "not directly accessible?" what does the pipe symbol crossed with 2 bars? (for instance of the top right of your scheme. Could you advise me a handbook? thanks a lot

  4. Excellente video. But, I think that there is a problem about the concept of dotted line and solid line @3:38 . According to ISA, the dotted line is used for normally inacessible (or behind-the-panel) devices; whereas the solid line depicts devices normally accessible (that can be used or be seen by an operator for the purpose of performing control actions).

  5. As a retired Journeyman Electrician, teaching is/was part of our job. It was my pride and joy to enlighten apprentices and watch their faces light up with every little trick of the trade. I remember each and every one of the men that helped me when I went through my apprenticeship. To teach is to touch lives forever.📖💪

  6. We have some major ones in my line of work, never take for granted that the piping goes in the direction of the drawing. Best advice for a starting point is to find a piece of equipment upstream and downstream of something major to determine you’re going in the right direction. Once you get the hand of them they are pretty simple. Just make sure when you are printing off them you have each page related to the start and end of the process you are following. Nothing worse than being on top of a 500ft structure that’s under construction to realize you didn’t bring all the right sheets. You only learn that lesson once when it’s like 45C in China and you’re a mile from the control room.

  7. With regards to Instrument location, in the Video the dotted line inside the circle indicated that the device is located in the control room while the solid inside the circle indicates that device is inaccessible to the operator. As per ISA-5.1-1984-(R1992) Standard it should be the other way around.

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